While I do not agree with everything in every source listed, these sources provide many of the pieces of a complex puzzle and, importantly, will provoke much thought.


Finn Aaserud, The Scientist and the Statesman: Niels Bohr's Political Crusade During World War II, Historical Studies in the Physical and Biological Sciences, vol. 30, part 1 (1999); [Bohr was one of the first to call for international control of nuclear weapons]

Gar Alperovitz, Enola Gay: A New Consensus, Washington Post, 2/4/95, pg. A17

Gar Alperovitz, Hiroshima at Fifty, Tikkun, July/August 1995

Gar Alperovitz, Hiroshima: Historians Reassess, Foreign Policy, Summer 1995

Gar Alperovitz, More On Atomic Diplomacy, Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists, Dec. 1985

Gar Alperovitz, To Drop the Atom Bomb: After 50 Years, Moral Reassessment of a Fateful Decision, Christianity and Crisis, 2/3/92

Gar Alperovitz, The Truman Show, Los Angeles Times, 8/9/98

Gar Alperovitz, Why the United States Dropped the Bomb, Technology Review, Aug./Sept. 1990

Gar Alperovitz, Was Harry Truman a Revisionist on Hiroshima?, Society for Historians of American Foreign Relations Newsletter, June 1998

Gar Alperovitz, Kai Bird, Was Hiroshima Needed to End the War?, Christian Science Monitor, 8/6/92, pg. 19

Gar Alperovitz, Robert Messer, and Barton Bernstein, Correspondence: Marshall, Truman, and the Decision to Drop the Bomb, International Security, Winter 1991/1992

Joseph Alsop, David Joravsky, Was the Hiroshima Bomb Necessary? An Exchange, New York Review of Books, 10/23/80, pg. 37+

Roger Anders, The President and the Atomic Bomb: Who Approved the Trinity Nuclear Test?, Prologue, Winter 1988

Herbert L. Anderson, The Legacy of Fermi and Szilard, Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists, Sept. 1974

Herbert L. Anderson, Fermi, Szilard and Trinity, Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists, Oct. 1974

Kenneth T. Bainbridge, Prelude to Trinity, Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists, April 1975

Kenneth T. Bainbridge, A Foul and Awesome Display, Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists, May 1975

Hanson Baldwin, How the Decision To Drop the Bomb Was Made: 'Little Boy's' Long, Long Journey, New York Times Magazine, 8/1/65

Hanson Baldwin, Our Worst Blunders In the War, Atlantic Monthly, Feb. 1950

Harry Elmer Barnes, Hiroshima: Assault on a Beaten Foe, National Review, 5/10/58, [says Japan gave MacArthur a surrender proposal in Jan. 1945]

Lincoln Barnett, J. Robert Oppenheimer, Life, 10/10/49, [bio of Oppie, with Oppie quotes]

Barton Bernstein, An Analysis of 'Two Cultures': Writing about the Making and the Using of the Atomic Bombs, The Public Historian, Spring 1990

Barton Bernstein, The Atomic Bomb and American Foreign Policy, 1941-1945: An Historiographical Controversy, Peace & Change, Spring 1974 [for minor corrections, see Peace & Change, Summer 1974, pg. 79-80]

Barton Bernstein, The Atomic Bombings Reconsidered, Foreign Affairs, Jan./Feb. 1995

Barton Bernstein, The Dropping of the A-Bomb, Center Magazine, March/April 1983

Barton Bernstein, Eclipsed by Hiroshima and Nagasaki: Early Thinking About Tactical Nuclear Weapons, International Security, Spring 1991

Barton Bernstein, Four Physicists and the Bomb: The Early Years, 1945-1950, Historical Studies in the Physical and Biological Sciences, 1988, vol. 18, part 2

Barton Bernstein, Leo Szilard: Giving Peace a Chance in the Nuclear Age, Physics Today, Sept. 1987

Barton Bernstein, The Perils and Politics of Surrender: Ending the War with Japan and Avoiding the Third Atomic Bomb, Pacific Historical Review, Feb. 1977

Barton Bernstein, A Postwar Myth: 500,000 U.S. Lives Saved, Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists, June/July 1986

Barton Bernstein, The Quest for Security: American Foreign Policy and International Control of Atomic Energy, 1942-1946, Journal of American History, March 1974

Barton Bernstein, Reconsidering 'Invasion Most Costly': Popular-History Scholarship, Publishing Standards, and the Claim of High U.S. Casualty Estimates to Help Legitimize the Atomic Bombings, Peace & Change, April 1999

Barton Bernstein, Roosevelt, Truman, and the Atomic Bomb, 1941-1945: a Reinterpretation, Political Science Quarterly, Spring 1975

Barton Bernstein, Seizing the Contested Terrain of Early Nuclear History: Stimson, Conant, and Their Allies Explain the Decision to Use the Atomic Bomb, Diplomatic History, Winter 1993

Barton Bernstein, Shatterer of Worlds: Hiroshima and Nagasaki, Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists, Dec. 1975

Barton Bernstein, A 'Surrender' on the Enola Gay, San Francisco Chronicle, Feb. 3, 1995, pg. A23

Barton Bernstein, Triumph and Tragedy: Hiroshima and Nagasaki - 30 Years Later, Intellect, Dec. 1975

Barton Bernstein, Truman at Potsdam: His Secret Diary, Foreign Service Journal, July/Aug. 1980

Barton Bernstein, The Uneasy Alliance: Roosevelt, Churchill, and the Atomic Bomb, 1940-1945, Western Political Quarterly, June 1976

Barton Bernstein, Unraveling a Mystery: American POWs Killed at Hiroshima, Foreign Service Journal, Oct. 1979

Barton Bernstein, Writing, Righting, or Wronging the Historical Record: President Truman's Letter on His Atomic Bomb Decision, Diplomatic History, Winter 1992

Michael Bess, Leo Szilard: Scientist, Activist, Visionary, Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists, Dec. 1985, [mostly the post-WWII activities of Szilard]

Kai Bird, The Curators Cave In, New York Times, 10/9/94, pg. 15 (OP-ED section)

Kai Bird, Enola Gay: 'Patriotically Correct', Washington Post, 7/7/95, p. A21

Kai Bird, Lawrence Lifschultz, Hiroshima's Shadow, [the dumbing of America], Chicago Tribune, 8/13/96, pg.15

Charles Brower, Sophisticated Strategist: General George A. Lincoln and the Defeat of Japan, 1944-45, Diplomatic History, Summer 1991, [Army planning to end the Pacific War]

Paul Boyer, The Cloud Over the Culture: How Americans Imagined the Bomb They Dropped, The New Republic, Aug. 12 - 19, 1985

Bulletin of Concerned Asian Scholars, April-June 1995 issue

McGeorge Bundy, Pearl Harbor Brought Peace, Newsweek, 12/16/91

James Byrnes, Byrnes Answers Truman, Collier's, 4/26/52, [includes Byrnes' belief that Truman did not want Russia in Pacific war]

Tony Capaccio, 'Truman' Author Errs on Japan Invasion Casualty Memo, Defense Week, 10/11/94

Tony Capaccio, Pentagon A-Bomb Exhibit Includes Suspect Casualty Claims, Defense Week, 8/7/95

Tony Capaccio and Uday Mohan, Missing the Target, American Journalism Review, July/August 1995

Otis Cary, Atomic Bomb Targeting - Myths and Realities, Japan Quarterly, Oct.-Dec. 1979, [many quotes from the Target Committee]

Otis Cary, The Sparing of Kyoto - Mr. Stimson's 'Pet City', Japan Quarterly, Oct.-Dec. 1975, [Kyoto was the military's choice over Hiroshima]

James Chace, After Hiroshima: Sharing the Atom Bomb, Foreign Affairs, Jan./Feb. 1996, [1945-46 efforts at international control]

William Sloane Coffin, Hiroshima Then and Now, Christian Century, 8/16-23/95, [why some find it hard to question the a-bombing of Japan]

Arthur Compton, The Birth of Atomic Power, Bulletin of Atomic Scientists, Feb. 1953

Norman Cousins and Thomas Finletter, A Beginning for Sanity, Saturday Review, 6/15/46, [early criticism of a-bombing of Japan]

Bill Davidson, He Talked to Japan, Collier's, 10/13/45, [Ellis Zacharias and his broadcasts to Japan]

Robert de Vore, The Man Who Made Manhattan, Collier's, 10/13/45, [early article on General Leslie Groves]

Diplomatic History, Spring 1995 issue [similar in content to Michael Hogan, ed., Hiroshima in History and Memory]

Einstein Deplores Use of Atom Bomb, New York Times, 8/19/46

Kai Erikson, Of Accidental Judgments and Casual Slaughters, The Nation, 8/3-10/85 [lack of analysis in decision to drop a-bombs]

Robert Erwin, Oppenheimer Investigated, Wilson Quarterly, Autumn 1994 [bio of the head Manhattan Project scientist]

Federal Council Bulletin, Churchmen Speak on Atomic Bomb, [including John Foster Dulles], Sept. 1945

Enrico Fermi, The Development of the First Chain Reacting Pile, Proceedings of the American Philosophical Society, vol. 90, no. 1, Jan. 1946

Enrico Fermi, Physics at Columbia University: the Genesis of the Nuclear Energy Project, Physics Today, Nov. 1955

Nat Finney, How F.D.R. Planned to Use the A-Bomb, Look, 3/14/50

David Frisch, Scientists and the Decision to Bomb Japan, Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists, June 1970, [a grad student at Los Alamos in 1945 considers alternatives to a-bombing Japan]

Otto R. Frisch, Somebody Turned the Sun on with a Switch, Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists, April 1974

Marc Gallicchio, After Nagasaki: General Marshall's Plan for Tactical Nuclear Weapons in Japan, Prologue, Winter 1991

GI's in Pacific Go Wild With Joy; 'Let 'Em Keep Emperor,' They Say, New York Times, 8/11/45, pg. 1, 4

Stanley Goldberg, Groves and Oppenheimer: the Story of a Partnership, The Antioch Review, Fall 1995

Stanley Goldberg, Groves and the Scientists: Compartmentalization and the Building of the Bomb, Physics Today, Aug. 1995

Stanley Goldberg, Inventing a Climate of Opinion: Vannevar Bush and the Decision to Build the Bomb, Isis, vol. 83, issue 3 (Sept. 1992)

Stanley Goldberg, Racing to the Finish: the Decision to Bomb Hiroshima and Nagasaki, Journal of American - East Asian Relations, Summer 1995, [Groves pushed for a-bomb use]

Margaret Gowing, Relections on Atomic Energy History, Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists, March 1979, [British and U.S. relations in the building of the a-bomb]

Leslie Groves, The Atom General Answers His Critics, Saturday Evening Post, 6/19/48

Leslie Groves, The Atomic Bomb Project, The Military Engineer, Dec. 1945

Leslie Groves, Development of the Atomic Bomb, The Military Engineer, June 1946

Leslie Groves, Some Recollections of July 16, 1945, Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists, June 1970 [danger of radioactive fallout known before Hiroshima]

Leslie Groves, The Story of the Atomic Bomb, Think, Nov. 1945

Leslie Groves, Letters, Science, Dec. 4, 1959, [comments on Manhattan Project]

Martin Harwit, Academic Freedom in 'The Last Act', Journal of American History, 12/95, [the then-director of the Air and Space Museum's take on the Enola Gay exhibit]

James Hilkins, The Rhetoric of 'Unconditional Surrender' and the Decision to Drop the Atomic Bomb, Quarterly Journal of Speech, Nov. 1983

Glenn Hook, Censorship and Reportage of Atomic Damage and Casualties in Hiroshima and Nagasaki, Bulletin of Concerned Asian Scholars, Jan.-Mar. 1991

Herbert Hoover, The Atomic Bomb - Statement by Former President Herbert Hoover, The Congressional Record: Proceedings and Debates of the 79th Congress First Session, 9/11/45 to 10/18/45, vol. 91, part 7, pg. 9213; [Hoover says the a-bomb is "barbaric" and international control is needed]

Ike on Ike, Newsweek, 11/11/63, [Eisenhower said a-bombings weren't necessary]

Makoto Iokibe, American Policy Towards Japan's 'Unconditional Surrender', Japanese Journal of American Studies, No. 1 (1981)

Japan Beaten Before Atom Bomb, Byrnes Says, Citing Peace Bids, New York Times, 8/30/45, pg. 1, 4

Justified Bombings? A Survivor's Reply, New York Times, 8/6/95, pg. 10

Fletcher Knebel and Charles Bailey, The Fight Over the A-Bomb, Look, 8/13/63, [Manhattan Project scientists who questioned using the a-bomb]

Frank Kofsky, Truman, Byrnes and the Atomic Bomb, Society for Historians of American Foreign Relations Newsletter, June 1996

Sehdev Kumar, Guided Missiles and Misguided Men: Reflections on Hiroshima and Nagasaki, Contemporary Review, Oct. 1985

William Lanouette, Why We Dropped the Bomb, Civilization, Jan.-Feb. 1995, [I recommend this overview of the subject]

William Laurence, Would You Make the Bomb Again?, New York Times Magazine, 8/1/65

Anthony Leviero, Economist Guided Early Atom Steps, New York Times, Nov. 28, 1945, [about Alexander Sachs]

Justin Libby, The Search for a Negotiated Peace, World Affairs, Summer 1993

Arjun Makhijani, "Always" the Target?, Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists, May/June 1995 [Japan, not Germany, was always the target for the atomic bombs]

Leo Maley and Uday Mohan, Second Guessing Hiroshima, Peacework, July/Aug. 1999; [prominent conservatives who were against the a-bombings]

Robert Manoff, American Victims of Hiroshima, New York Times Magazine, 12/2/84, pg. 67+

John McManus, Dropping the Bomb: Why Did the U.S. Unleash Its Terrible Weapon?, [right-wing criticism of atomic bombing of Japan], The New American, 8/21/95

Timothy McNulty, War of Words: What the Museum Couldn't Say, New York Times, 2/5/95, pg. E5

Robert Messer, New Evidence on Truman's Decision, Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists, Aug. 1985

Rufus Miles, Hiroshima: The Strange Myth of Half a Million American Lives Saved, International Security, Fall 1985

Greg Mitchell, A Hole in History, The Progressive, Aug. 1995, [why it's hard for some to consider that the a-bombings may have been unnecessary]

Greg Mitchell, Forgotten Bomb, The Progressive, Aug. 1985, [why Nagasaki was a-bombed]

Uday Mohan, Sanho Tree, Hiroshima, the American Media, and the Construction of Conventional Wisdom, Journal of American-East Asian Relations, Summer 1995

Uday Mohan, Leo Maley, America's Hiroshima: Culture Wars and the Classroom, Education About Asia, Fall 1997

Uday Mohan, Leo Maley, Blasting the A-Bomb, The Atlanta Constitution, 8/7/00, section A11; [Lippmann and other commentators who disagreed with the a-bombings]

Felix Morley, The Return To Nothingness, Human Events, 8/29/45, [loss of ideals]

Philip Morrison, Blackett's Analysis of the Issues, Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists, Feb. 1949, [a Manhattan Project scientist discusses P.M.S. Blackett's view that the a-bombs were used because of Russia]

Philip Morrison, Recollections of a Nuclear War, Scientific American, Aug. 1995, [a Manhattan Project scientist talks about the development and use of the atomic bomb]

National Review, R.I.P. (editorial), 3/29/58, [Hiroshima and lack of compassion]

Paul Nitze, Was Truman Right to Drop the Bomb?, Vital Speeches of the Day, 9/15/95

Robert Oppenheimer, Atomic Weapons, Proceedings of the American Philosophical Society, vol. 90, no. 1, Jan. 1946; [the a-bomb is "an evil thing", but it can put an end to war]

Robert Oppenheimer, Letters, Science, Dec. 4, 1959, [comments on Manhattan Project]

Robert Oppenheimer, Niels Bohr and Atomic Weapons, New York Review of Books, Dec. 17, 1964, [Bohr was one of the first to press for international control of nuclear weapons before Hiroshima]

Robert Oppenheimer, Secretary Stimson and the Atomic Bomb, The Andover Bulletin, Spring 1961

Oxnam, Dulles Ask Halt in Bomb Use, New York Times, 8/10/45, pg. 6, [John Foster Dulles and Federal Council of Churches of Christ ask Truman to stop the atomic bombings]

Robert Pape, Why Japan Surrendered, International Security, Fall 1993

Thomas Paterson, Potsdam, the Atomic Bomb, and the Cold War: A Discussion With James F. Byrnes, Pacific Historical Review, May 1972

Peace Feelers, Chicago Daily Tribune, 5/10/45, pg. 18, [Let Japan keep emperor]

Rudolf Peierls, Reflections of a British Participant, Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists, Aug. 1985, [early a-bomb scientist talks about his a-bomb work and his regrets over the a-bombings]

President Truman Did Not Understand , [interview with Leo Szilard], U.S. News and World Report, 8/15/60

Eugene Rabinowitch, Now It Can Be Told, Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists, Oct. 1962, [review by Manhattan Project scientist of Groves' book of this title]

John Rawls, 50 Years After Hiroshima, Dissent, Summer 1995, [moral priciples of war and Hiroshima]

Report Truman Urged to Tell Terms to Japs, Chicago Daily Tribune, 7/24/45, pg. 1, [Sen. Wherry says offer better terms, save American lives]

Joseph Rotblat, Leaving the Bomb Project, Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists, Aug. 1985 [Groves said A-bomb was to intimidate Russia],

Murray Sayle, Did the Bomb End the War?, The New Yorker, 7/31/95, [argues that Russian invasion ended war, not a-bombs]

Mark Selden, The United States, Japan, and the Atomic Bomb, Bulletin of Concerned Asian Scholars, Jan.-Mar. 1991

Stephen Shalom, The Obliteration of Hiroshima, New Politics, Summer 1996, [lengthy review of six 1995 books on this topic]

Martin Sherwin, The Atomic Bomb and the Origins of the Cold War: U.S. Atomic-Energy Policy and Diplomacy, 1941-45, American Historical Review, Oct. 1973

Martin Sherwin, Hiroshima as Politics and History, Journal of American History, 12/95, [political use of Hiroshima to support U.S. heroic narrative]

Martin Sherwin, Hiroshima and Modern Memory, The Nation, 10/10/81

Martin Sherwin, How Well They Meant, Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists, Aug. 1985

Martin Sherwin, Niels Bohr: Spurned Prophet of Arms Control, Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists, Nov. 1986

Martin Sherwin, Old Issues in New Editions, Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists, Dec. 1985

Edward Shils, Leo Szilard: A Memoir, Encounter, Dec. 1964

Leon Sigal, Bureaucratic Politics and Tactical Use of Committees: the Interim Committee and the Decision to Drop the Atomic Bomb, Polity, Spring 1978, [says Int. Com. was a rubber stamp for decision already made]

Alice Kimball Smith, Behind the Decision to Use the Atomic Bomb: Chicago 1944-45, Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists, Oct. 1958

Alice Kimball Smith, The Elusive Dr. Szilard, Harper's, July 1960, [bio and description of Szilard]

Alice Kimball Smith, Los Alamos: Focus of an Age, Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists, June 1970, [Smith was at Los Alamos during the Manhattan Project]

Gaddis Smith, Was Moscow Our Real Target?, New York Times Book Review, 8/18/85, pg. 16

Alfred Stern, Interview With Einstein, Contemporary Jewish Record, June 1945, [Einstein hints at a-bomb]

Henry Stimson, The Bomb and the Opportunity, Harper's, March 1946, [overview of need for international control of nuclear weapons]

Henry Stimson, The Decision To Use the Atomic Bomb, [orthodox defense of the atomic bombings], Harper's, February 1947

G.R. Storry, Konoye Fumimaro, "The Last of the Fujiwara", Far Eastern Affairs, #2 1960

John Sutherland, The Story Gen. Marshall Told Me, U.S. News and World Report, 11/2/59

Leo Szilard, A Personal History of the Atomic Bomb, [by the first scientist to conceive of the possibility of an a-bomb], University of Chicago Roundtable, 9/25/49

Leo Szilard, We Turned the Switch, The Nation, Dec. 22, 1945

Ronald Takaki, 50 Years After Hiroshima, Dissent, Summer 1995, [racism, morality, and Hiroshima]

Technology Review, August/September 1995 issue; [pro and con articles on the a-bombings and nuclear weapons]

Norman Thomas, When Cruelty Becomes Pleasurable, Human Events, 9/26/45

Kurt Tong, Korea's Forgotten Atomic Bomb Victims, Bulletin of Concerned Asian Scholars, Jan.-Mar. 1991

Walter Trohan, Bare Peace Bid U.S. Rebuffed 7 Months Ago, Chicago Tribune, 8/19/45, pg. 1, [says Japan gave MacArthur a surrender proposal in Jan. 1945]

Walter Trohan, Ignored Japanese Peace Bids Plague U.S., West with What Might Have Been, Chicago Tribune, 8/14/65, pg. 1

Truman, in Letter to Hiroshima, Defends His Atom Bomb Order, New York Times, 3/15/58, pg. 1, 5 [see also NY Times, 2/14/58, pg. 2 for Hiroshima's protest of Truman's earlier defense of the a-bombings]

U.S. Strategic Bombing Survey, Atomic Bomb: First Official Report On Damage to Japan, U.S. News and World Report, July 5, 1946

Brian Villa, The U.S. Army, Unconditional Surrender, and the Potsdam Proclamation, Journal of American History, June 1976

Mike Wallace, The Battle of the Enola Gay, Museum News, July/August 1995, [the Smithsonian exhibit]

Mike Wallace, The Battle of the Enola Gay, Radical Historians Newsletter, May 1995, [similar to the above article]

J. Samuel Walker, The Decision to Use the Bomb: A Historiographical Update, Diplomatic History, Winter 1990

Michael Walzer, Paul Fussell, An Exchange on Hiroshima, New Republic, 9/23/81

War Was Really Won Before We Used A-bomb [interview with Ralph Bard], U.S. News and World Report, 8/15/60

We Were Anxious to Get the War Over [interview with James Byrnes], U.S. News and World Report, 8/15/60

James Weingartner, Trophies of War: U.S. Troops and the Mutilation of Japanese War Dead, 1941-1945 [racism's contribution to dehumanization and Hiroshima], Pacific Historical Review, Feb. 1992

Victor F. Weisskopf, Niels Bohr: a Memorial Tribute, Physics Today, Oct. 1963; [overview of Bohr's life]

John Archibald Wheeler, Niels Bohr and Nuclear Physics, Physics Today, Oct. 1963; [Bohr's colleague talks about Bohr and the beginnings of atomic bomb research]

Eugene Wigner, Leo Szilard: February 11, 1898 - May 30, 1964, National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America: Biographical Memoirs, 1969

Joan Hoff Wilson, Herbert Hoover's Plan for Ending the Second World War, International History Review, Jan. 1979

Robert Wilson, The Conscience of a Physicist, Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists, June 1970, [a Manhattan Project divison leader tells why he worked on the a-bomb and why he wishes he had quit]

Ellis Zacharias, Eighteen Words That Bagged Japan, Saturday Evening Post, 11/17/45

Ellis Zacharias, The A-Bomb Was Not Needed, United Nations World, Aug. 1949

Ellis Zacharias, We Did Not Need to Drop the A-Bomb, Look, 5/23/50

Ellis Zacharias, How We Bungled the Japanese Surrender, Look, 6/6/50

Howard Zinn, The Bombs of August, The Progressive, Aug. 2000; [why the a-bombings are politically important to warmakers]

To go to the bibliography section on books, archives, and cd-roms, click Books.
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