The sources I relied upon the most in writing my article are underlined. However, there is much of value in the other sources as well.

While I do not agree with everything in every source listed, these sources provide many of the pieces of a complex puzzle and, importantly, will provoke much thought.

Some of the books listed are hard to find, so here are two web sites I've had good luck with that compare book prices and tell where they can be bought. One lists books that are still in print and the other lists used books.

In Print Books (AddAll book price compare)

Used Books (AddAll book price compare)

Archival sources and CD-ROMS are listed at the end of this section. Since this page has gotten rather large, I've moved the periodical section to: Periodicals.


Dean Acheson, Present at the Creation, 1969, [contains a brief portion on Acheson's input to unconditional surrender debate]

Henry Adams, Witness to Power: the Life of Fleet Admiral William D. Leahy, 1985, [Chief of Staff for Presidents FDR, Truman]

Robert Albion and Robert Connery, Forrestal and the Navy, 1962, [bio of the Sec. of the Navy]

Gar Alperovitz, Atomic Diplomacy, 1985

Gar Alperovitz, The Decision To Use the Atomic Bomb, 1995

H. H. [Hap] Arnold, Global Mission, 1949, [Arnold headed the Air Force]

Liva Baker, Felix Frankfurter,, 1969, [pg. 271-280 talk about Frankfurter's and Niels Bohr's efforts toward international control of nuclear weapons in 1944-45]

Hanson Baldwin, Great Mistakes of the War, 1950, [criticism of a-bombings by NY Times military correspondent]

E. Barlett Kerr, Flames Over Tokyo, 1991, [the non-atomic bombings of Japan]

Barton Bernstein, ed., 1976, The Atomic Bomb

Barton Bernstein and Allen Matusow, ed., 1966, The Truman Administration: A Documentary History

Kai Bird, The Chairman: John J. McCloy, the Making of the American Establishment, 1992, [McCloy was a close associate of Sec. of War Stimson]

Kai Bird, The Color of Truth: McGeorge Bundy and William Bundy: Brothers in Arms, 1998, [has some background on Sec. of War Stimson and the a-bomb]

Kai Bird, Lawrence Lifschultz, eds., Hiroshima's Shadow: Writings on the Denial of History and the Smithsonian Controversy, [collection of articles on the a-bombings and the Smithsonian exhibit]

Kai Bird, Martin J. Sherwin, American Prometheus: The Triumph and Tragedy of J. Robert Oppenheimer, 2005, [the definitive Oppenheimer biography]

P.M.S. Blackett, Fear, War, and the Bomb, 1949, [especially Chapter 10. Blackett argues that Russia was the real motivation for the atomic bombings]

Niels Blaedel, Harmony and Unity: The Life of Niels Bohr, 1988

John Blum, ed., The Price of Vision - The Diary of Henry A. Wallace, 1942-1946, 1973, [Sec. of Commerce in Truman cabinet]

Paul Boyer, By the Bomb's Early Light, 1985, [U.S. reactions to the atomic bombing of Japan]

Paul Boyer, Fallout: A Historian Reflects on America's Half Century Encounter With Nuclear Weapons, 1998; [includes early American reactions to the atomic bombings]

Paul Boyer, 'Some Sort of Peace': President Truman, the American People, and the Atomic Bomb (in The Truman Presidency, 1989, ed. by Michael Lacey), [the nuclear weapon decisions of the Truman presidency]

Francis Anthony Boyle, The Future of International Law and American Foreign Policy, 1989, [Chap. 9 discusses international law and the atomic bombing of Japan]

Lester Brooks, Behind Japan's Surrender, 1968

Anthony Cave Brown, The Last Hero: Wild Bill Donovan, 1982, [talks about Japanese peace feelers, pg. 771+]

Walter Brown, James F. Byrnes of South Carolina, 1992, [Byrnes was Sec. of State under Truman]

Arthur Bryant, Triumph In the West: A History of the War Years Based on the Diaries of Field-Marshall Lord Alanbrooke, Chief of the Imperial General Staff, 1959; [contains Churchill's views on the a-bomb during WWII as witnessed by Lord Alanbrooke]

Thomas Buell, Master of Sea Power: A Biography of Fleet Admiral Ernest J. King, 1980, [U.S. Chief of Naval Operations in WWII]

McGeorge Bundy, Danger and Survival: Choices About the Bomb in the First Fifty Years, 1988

Wilfred Burchett, At the Barricades: Forty Years on the Cutting Edge of History, 1981, [Burchett was the first Allied reporter to go to Hiroshima after the atomic bombing]

Wilfred Burchett, Shadows of Hiroshima, 1983

Vannevar Bush, Pieces of the Action, 1970, [Mahattan Project administrator and advisor]

Robert Butow, Japan's Decision To Surrender, 1954

Robert Butow, Tojo and the Coming of the War, 1961

James Byrnes, All In One Lifetime, 1958, [Sec. of State under Truman]

James Byrnes, Speaking Frankly, 1947

Thomas M. Campbell, George C. Herring, eds., The Diaries of Edward R. Stettinius, Jr., 1943-1946, 1975

John Chappell, Before the Bomb: How America Approached the End of the Pacific War, 1997

Winston Churchill, Triumph and Tragedy, paperback edition

Ronald Clark, Einstein: The Life and Times, 1971, [includes his role in helping to initiate the Manhattan Project and his reaction to the atomic bombing of Japan]

Ronald Clark, The Greatest Power on Earth, 1980, [history of a-bomb development]

Ronald Clark, The Man Who Broke Purple: The Life of Colonel William F. Friedman, Who Deciphered the Japanese Code in World War II, 1977

Ray Cline (Office of the Chief of Military History, Dept. of the Army), United States Army in World War II, the War Department, Washington Command Post: the Operations Division, 1951, [contains the military's requests for clarification of unconditional surrender: pg. 340+]

Thomas Coffey, Imperial Tragedy, 1970, [covers Pearl Harbor and Hiroshima; based on interviews and documents, but without footnotes]

Committee For the Compilation of Materials on Damage Caused by the Atomic Bombs in Hiroshima and Nagasaki, Hiroshima and Nagasaki: the Physical, Medical, and Social Effects of the Atomic Bombings, 1981

Arthur Holly Compton, Atomic Quest, 1956, [Director of Met. Lab for Manhattan Project]

James Conant, My Several Lives, 1970, [Mahattan Project administrator and advisor]

Norman Cousins, The Pathology of Power, [tells of MacArthur's negative view of Japan's a-bombing]

William Craig, The Fall of Japan, 1967

Ed Cray, General of the Army: George C. Marshall, 1990, [highest ranking Army officer in WWII]

Richard Current, Secretary Stimson: A Study In Statecraft, 1954, [bio questions necessity for a-bombing Japan]

Nuel Pharr Davis, Lawrence and Oppenheimer

Robert Donovan, Conflict and Crisis, [Truman bio, 1945-48]

Jeffery M. Dorwart, Conflict of Duty, 1983, [brief portions on Ellis Zacharias]

John Dower, Japan In War and Peace, 1993, [includes chapters on Japanese a-bomb program, Hirohito]

John Dower, War Without Mercy, 1986, [effect of U.S. and Japanese culture on WWII]

The Earl of Birkenhead, The Prof In Two Worlds, 1961, [bio of Lord Cherwell, close advisor who recommended working on the a-bomb to Churchill; only a few pages of info on that in this book]

Dwight Eisenhower, Crusade in Europe

Dwight Eisenhower, Mandate for Change

John Emmerson, The Japanese Thread: A Life in the U.S. Foreign Service, [State Dept. advisor writes about the end of the Pacific War, pg. 230+]

Joseph J. Ermenc, editor, Atomic Bomb Scientists Memoirs, 1939-1945, 1989

Ladislas Farago, Burn After Reading: the Espionage History of World War II, [Chapter 22 tells of his work with Ellis Zacharias]

Herbert Feis, The Atomic Bomb and the End of World War II, 1966

Laura Fermi, Atoms In the Family: My Life With Enrico Fermi, 1954

Robert Ferrell, ed., Dear Bess: the Letters from Harry to Bess Truman, 1910-1959, 1983

Robert Ferrell, ed., Harry S. Truman and the Bomb: A Documentary History [contains some of the documents pertaining to the atomic bombing of Japan]

Robert Ferrell, ed., Off the Record - the Private Papers of Harry S. Truman, 1980

Robert Ferrell, ed., Truman in the White House: The Diary of Eben A. Ayers, [Truman's Assistant Press Secretary]

Richard Feynman, Surely You're Joking, Mr. Feynman!, [Manhattan Project reactions to the a-bomb]

Edwin Fogelman, ed., Hiroshima: The Decision to Use the A-Bomb, [essays by decision-makers, advisors, and historians]

Max Freedman, Roosevelt and Frankfurter: Their Correspondence, 1928-1945, 1967, [Frankfurter helped Niels Bohr promote international control of nuclear weapons with FDR]

A.P. French, P.J. Kennedy, editors, Niels Bohr: A Centenary Volume, 1985, [Bohr worked for international control of nuclear weapons in 1944]

Major-General J.F.C. Fuller, The Second World War, 1939-1945: A Strategical and Tactical History, 1948, [says a-bombings were unnecessary, immoral - pg. 390-397]

The Gallup Poll: Public Opinion 1935-1971; Vol. 1: 1935-1948

Martin Gilbert, Winston S. Churchill, Never Despair, 1945-1965, 1988

Len Giovannitti and Fred Freed, The Decision To Drop the Bomb, 1965

F.G. Gosling, The Manhattan Project: Making the Atomic Bomb, [U.S. Dept. of Energy booklet, Jan. 1999 edition]

Leslie Groves, Now It Can Be Told, 1962, [Groves was the general in charge of the Manhattan Project]

R.F. Harrod, The Prof: A Personal Memoir of Lord Cherwell, 1959, [close advisor to Churchill, to whom he recommended working on the a-bomb; only a few pages of info on that in this book]

Martin Harwit, An Exhibit Denied: Lobbying the History of Enola Gay, [The story of the Enola Gay exhibit, as told by the then-Director of the Smithsonian National Air and Space Museum]

Tsuyoshi Hasegawa, Racing the Enemy: Stalin, Truman, and the Surrender of Japan, 2005, [The best recent book on the ending of the Pacific War]

Helen Hawkins, G. Allen Greb, and Gertrud Weiss Szilard, ed., Toward a Livable World: Leo Szilard and the Crusade for Nuclear Arms Control, [Szilard was the first scientist to conceive of how an a-bomb could work]

Laura Hein, Mark Selden, eds., Living With the Bomb, [Japanese and U.S. interpretations of the a-bombings, from the end of WWII to the present]

Kevin Herbert, Maximum Effort: The B-29s Against Japan, 1983, [a Pacific War B-29 tail-gunner describes his experiences, says a-bombings were not necessary]

Gregg Herken, Brotherhood of the Bomb: the Tangled Lives and Loyalties of Robert Oppenheimer, Ernest Lawrence, and Edward Teller, 2002

Gregg Herken, The Winning Weapon: The Atomic Bomb in the Cold War 1945-1950

James Hershberg, James B. Conant: Harvard to Hiroshima and the Making of the Nuclear Age, [Conant was a Mahattan Project administrator and advisor]

Robert Herzstein, Henry R. Luce: A Political Portrait of the Man Who Created the American Century, [Time/Life publisher's views on Pacific War, a-bombings - pg. 379+]

Richard Hewlett and Oscar Anderson, The New World: A History of the United States Atomic Energy Commission, Vol. 1, 1939-1946, 1962, [official A.E.C. account]

Godfrey Hodgson, The Colonel: The Life and Wars of Henry Stimson, 1867-1950, [WWII Sec. of War]

Michael Hogan, ed., Hiroshima in History and Memory, 1996, [similar in content to Diplomatic History, Spring 1995]

David Holloway, Stalin and the Bomb

Townsend Hoopes and Douglas Brinkley, Driven Patriot: the Life and Times of James Forrestal, 1992, [WWII Sec. of the Navy]

Edwin Hoyt, Inferno: The Firebombing of Japan, March 9 - August 15, 1945, 2000

Edwin Hoyt, Japan's War

Cordell Hull, The Memoirs of Cordell Hull, Vol. II, [Sec. of State under FDR]

Saburo Ienaga, The Pacific War 1931-1945, 1978, [talks about Japanese aggression]

Akira Iriye, Power and Culture: The Japanese-American War 1941-1945, 1981

D. Clayton James, The Years of MacArthur, Vol. II: 1941-1945

Walter Johnson, ed., Turbulent Era - Joseph Grew, Vol. II, [WWII Under Sec. of State]

Robert Jungk, Brighter Than a Thousand Suns, 1958, [a-bomb use and history from scientists' viewpoint]

Osanaga Kanroji, Hirohito: An Intimate Portrait of the Japanese Emperor, 1975, [author was a member of Hirohito's imperial court]

Toshikazu Kase, Journey To the Missouri, [WWII member of Japanese Foreign Ministry]

Paul Kecskemeti, Strategic Surrender, [1958 Rand Corporation analysis of WWII surrenders]

Ernest King and Walter Muir Whitehill, Fleet Admiral King: A Naval Record

Fletcher Knebel and Charles Bailey II, No High Ground

Dan Kurzman, Day of the Bomb: Countdown to Hiroshima, 1986

William Lanouette, Genius In the Shadows: A Biography of Leo Szilard, the Man Behind the Bomb, 1992

Stephen Large, Emperor Hirohito & Showa Japan, 1992

Rebecca Larsen, Oppenheimer and the Atomic Bomb, 1988

William Lawren, The General and the Bomb: A Biography of General Leslie R. Groves, Director of the Manhattan Project, 1988

William D. Leahy, I Was There, 1950, [Chief of Staff for FDR, Truman]

Ronald Lewin, The American Magic: Codes, Ciphers and the Defeat of Japan

Robert Jay Lifton, Death in Life: Survivors of Hiroshima, 1991, [effects of the atomic bombs on the Japanese]

Robert Jay Lifton and Greg Mitchell, Hiroshima in American: Fifty Years of Denial

David Lilienthal, The Journals of David E. Lilienthal, Volume Two, 1964

Edward Linenthal, Tom Engelhardt, eds., History Wars, 1996, [background and meaning of the Smithsonian Enola Gay exhibit battle]

William Manchester, American Caesar: Douglas MacArthur, 1880-1964

Ralph Martin, Henry and Clare: An Intimate Portrait of the Luces, [Time/Life publisher's views on Pacific War, a-bombings - pg. 252-253]

Elizabeth MacLean, Joseph E. Davies: Envoy to the Soviets, [Advisor to Truman on Soviets; U.S. Ambassador to Moscow 1937-38]

John McCloy, The Challenge to American Foreign Policy, [McCloy was Assistant Sec. of War]

Charles Mee, Meeting at Potsdam

Dennis Merrill, editor, Documentary History of the Truman Presidency, Volume 1: The Decision to Drop the Atomic Bomb on Japan, 1995

Robert Messer, The End of an Alliance: James F. Byrnes, Roosevelt, Truman, and the Origins of the Cold War, [Sec. of State Byrnes and the atomic bombings]

David Mets, Master of Airpower: General Carl A. Spaatz, [pg. 294+ contains Spaatz' role in the atomic bombings]

Peter Michelmore, The Swift Years: The Robert Oppenheimer Story, 1969

Walter Millis, ed., The Forrestal Diaries, [WWII Sec. of the Navy]

Richard Minear, Victors' Justice: The Tokyo War Crimes Trial, [criticism of the trial of the Japanese war leaders]

Uday Mohan, History and the News Media: The Smithsonian Controversy, [contained in Phil Hammond, ed., Cultural Difference, Media Memories: Anglo-American Images of Japan, chapter 7]

Uday Mohan and Leo Maley III, Orthodoxy & Dissent: The American News Media & the Decision to Use the Atomic Bomb Against Japan, 1945-1995, [contained in Phil Hammond, ed., Cultural Difference, Media Memories: Anglo-American Images of Japan, chapter 6]

Lord Moran (Sir Charles Wilson), Churchill: Taken from the Diaries of Lord Moran, [Lord Moran was Churchill's personal physician]

Elting Morison, Turmoil and Tradition: A Study of the Life and Times of Henry L. Stimson, {WWII Sec. of War]

Robert Morris, No Wonder We Are Losing, [1958 book on efforts to defeat Japan with psychological warfare: pg. 48 - 79]

Otto Nathan, Heinz Norden, editors, Einstein On Peace, 1960 (1981 edition)

New York Times, Hiroshima Plus 20, 1965, [includes short interviews with Oppie, McCloy]

Paul Nitze, From Hiroshima to Glasnost

Philip Nobile, ed., Judgment at the Smithsonian, 1995

Robert S. Norris, Racing For the Bomb: Leslie R. Groves, the Manhattan Project's Indispensable Man, 2002

Pacific War Research Society, The Day Man Lost

Pacific War Research Society, Japan's Longest Day

Abraham Pais, Niels Bohr's Times, in Physics, Philosophy, and Polity, 1991, [Bohr was a Manhattan Project scientist who promoted international control of nuclear weapons]

Rudolf Peierls, Bird of Passage: Recollections of a Physicist, 1985, [Peierls was a Manhattan Project scientist]

Forrest Pogue, George C. Marshall: Statesman 1945-1959, 1987

Public Papers of the Presidents, Harry S. Truman, 1945

Martin Quigley, Peace Without Hiroshima: Secret Action at the Vatican in the Spring of 1945, 1991

James Reston, Deadline [Appendix contains John McCloy article on June 18, 1945 meeting with Truman]

Weldon Rhoades, Flying MacArthur to Victory, [MacA's pilot quotes him on the a-bomb]

Richard Rhodes, The Making of the Atomic Bomb, 1986

David Robertson, Sly and Able - A Political Biography of James F. Byrnes, [Sec. of State]

Sue Rabbitt Roff, Hotspots: The Legacy of Hiroshima and Nagasaki, 1995, [history of studies of radiation in Hiroshima and Nagasaki]

Arnold Rogow, James Forrestal: A Study of Personality, Politics and Policy

S. Rozental, editor, Niels Bohr: His Life and Work as Seen By His Friends and Colleagues, 1967, [contains a chapter by Bohr's son Aage on "The War Years and the Prospects Raised by the Atomic Weapons"]

Ronald Schaffer, Wings of Judgment: American Bombing in World War II, 1985

S.S. Schweber, Oppenheimer, Bethe, and the Moral Responsibility of the Scientist, 2000

Alison Scott, Christopher Geist, editors, The Writing on the Cloud: American Culture Confronts the Atomic Bomb, 1997, [Chapter 14: "Hiroshima and Nagasaki: Memory (and Forgetting in the Religious Press, by Leo Maley]

Emilio Segre, Enrico Fermi: Physicist, 1970

Robert Serber, Peace and War: Reminiscences of a Life on the Frontiers of Science, 1998, [Serber was a Manhattan Project scientist and a good friend of J. Robert Oppenheimer. This is Serber's scientific autobiography]

Michael Sherry, The Rise of American Air Power, 1987

Martin Sherwin, A World Destroyed, 1987 edition, [excellent political background to a-bomb's development and use]

Robert Sherwood, Roosevelt and Hopkins

Ben-Ami Shillony, Politics and Culture In Wartime Japan, 1981

Leon Sigal, Fighting To a Finish, 1988

John Ray Skates, The Invasion of Japan: Alternative to the Bomb, 1994

Alice Kimbal Smith, A Peril and A Hope

Alice Kimbal Smith and Charles Weiner, ed., Robert Oppenheimer: Letters and Recollections

Richard Norton Smith, An Uncommon Man: the Triumph of Herbert Hoover, [Hoover's plan to win the war without a-bombs]

Rinjiro Sodei, Were We the Enemy? American Survivors of Hiroshima; [Japanese-American survivors of the atomic bombings]

Henry Stimson & McGeorge Bundy, On Active Service In Peace and War, 1948, [Stimson was Sec. of War during WWII]

Charles Strozier, The Tragedy of Unconditional Surrender [origins of the WWII unconditional surrender demand]; in Robert Cowley, ed., Experience of War

Lewis Strauss, Men and Decisions, [contains Strauss' pre-Hiroshima suggestion for effective a-bomb use on non-urban target]

Ferenc Morton Szasz, The Day the Sun Rose Twice: The Story of the Tinity Site Nuclear Explosion, July 16, 1945, 1984

Ronald Takaki, Hiroshima: Why America Dropped the Atomic Bomb, 1995

Strobe Talbot, The Master of the Game, [has info on the Strategic Bombing Survey]

Togo, Shigenori, The Cause of Japan, [Foreign Minister of Japan in WWII], 1956

John Toland, The Rising Sun, 1971 paperback

Harry Truman, Year of Decisions, 1955

Margaret Truman, Harry S. Truman, 1973

Stewart Udall, The Myths of August, 1994

U.S. Atomic Energy Commission, In the Matter of J. Robert Oppenheimer, [includes Oppenheimer testimony on his role in the Manhattan Project, pg. 26+; he says he "didn't know beans about the military situation in Japan."]

U.S. Dept. of Defense, The Entry of the Soviet Union Into the War Against Japan: Military Plans, 1941-1945, 1955

U.S. Dept. of State, Foreign Relations of the U.S., The Conference of Berlin (Potsdam) 1945, vol. 1, [original WWII documents]

U.S. Dept. of State, Foreign Relations of the U.S., The Conference of Berlin (Potsdam) 1945, vol. 2, [original WWII documents]

University Publications of America, The Diary of Marquis Kido, 1931-1945: Selected Translations into English, [the Emperor's closest advisor - Lord Keeper of the Privy Seal]

Antonina Vallentin, The Drama of Albert Einstein, 1954, [Vallentin was a friend of Einstein and his wife]

Dennis Wainstock, The Decision To Drop the Atomic Bomb, 1996

Timothy Walch and Dwight Miller, ed., Herbert Hoover and Harry Truman: A Documentary History, [contains Hoover's non-atomic plan to win war with Japan]

Michael Walzer, Just and Unjust Wars

Spencer Weart and Gertrud Weiss Szilard, ed., Leo Szilard: His Version of the Facts, [1930s and 40s views on the a-bomb by one of its inventors], 1980

Alexander Werth, Russia at War: 1941-1945, 1964, [Werth was a British journalist who lived in Russia during WWII]

John W. Wheeler-Bennett, John Anderson: Viscount Waverley, 1962, [Anderson was the British Cabinet member responsible for Britain's nuclear project in WWII]

Keith Wheeler, The Fall of Japan, 1983, [Time-Life summary on the a-bomb and the end of the Pacific war]

Maria Wilhelm, The Man Who Watched the Rising Sun: Admiral Ellis M. Zacharias, 1967

Robert Williams and Philip Cantelon, ed., The American Atom, [contains original documents on a-bomb's development and use]

Allan Winkler, The Politics of Propaganda: the Office of War Information 1942-1945, [psychological warfare vs. Japan; info on Zacharias]

Peter Wyden, Day One: Before Hiroshima and After, 1985, [a good first book to read on the a-bomb's development and use]

Yoshitake, Oka, Konoe Fumimaro: A Political Biography, [former Prime Minister of Japan]

Ellis Zacharias, Secret Missions: the Story of an Intelligence Officer, 1946, [Zacharias advocated using psychological warfare on Japan]

G. Pascal Zachary, Endless Frontier: Vannevar Bush, Engineer of the American Century, [Bush was a key organizer and advisor for the a-bomb project]


Diary of Henry (Hap) Arnold, Library of Congress

Papers of James F. Byrnes/Diary of Walter Brown, Clemson University Library, Clemson, SC

Papers of Herbert Feis, Boxes 79 and 103 ("N.B.C. Interviews"), Library of Congress. Contains interviews with many of those involved in the atomic bombing of Japan. These were used by Len Giovannitti and Fred Freed for their television show and book "The Decision to Drop the Bomb".

Papers of Joseph C. Grew - Letters, Conversations, MsAm 1687 Vol. 121-123, MsAm 1687.3, Vol. 7; Houghton Library, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA

Papers of General Leslie R. Groves, RG 200, National Archives

International Military Tribunal For the Far East, Records of the Proceedings, 1946-1948, microfilm reels 24 and 27, Law Library, Library of Congress, [contains testimony of Kido (and excerpts from his diary), Togo, Suzuki, and others]

Diary of William D. Leahy, Library of Congress

Magic-Diplomatic Summary, Records of the National Security Agency, Magic Files, RG 457, Box 18, Entry 9030 (a more complete version than entry 9006), National Archives

Manhattan Engineering District Records, Harrison-Bundy Files, Record Group 77, National Archives

Papers of John J. McCloy, Amherst College Library, Amherst, MA

Papers of J. Robert Oppenheimer, Library of Congress

Papers of Arthur W. Page, [assistant to Sec. of War Stimson], Wisconsin State Historical Society, Madison, WI, Box 12

Diary of Henry L. Stimson, Yale University Library, New Haven, Conn.

Papers of Henry L. Stimson, Yale University Library, New Haven, Conn.

U.S. Army. Far East Command, Statements of Japanese Officials on World War II, RG 338, Stack 290, Compartment 4 - 5, Shelf 6, Boxes 104, 105, 109, 110, National Archives (see also in the Library of Congress, Jefferson Bldg., microfilm 51256(U))

U.S. Strategic Bombing Survey, Interrogation of Toyoda, Japanese War Plans and Peace Moves, RG 243, microfilm roll 21, section 72, NAV-75, National Archives

U.S. Strategic Bombing Survey, Interrogation of Yonai, Japanese War Planning, RG 243, microfilm roll 21, section 72, NAV-76, National Archives

U.S. Strategic Bombing Survey, Japan's Struggle to End the War, RG 243, microfilm roll 18, section 2, National Archives

U.S. Strategic Bombing Survey, Summary Report (Pacific War), RG 243, microfilm roll 18, section 1, National Archives


Critical Mass: America's Race to Build the Atomic Bomb, Corbis

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